A misconception resulting from flaw in reasoning, or a trick or illusion in thoughts that often succeeds in obfuscating facts/truth.
A formal fallacy is defined as an error that can be seen within the argument's form. Every formal fallacy is a non sequitur (or, an argument where the conclusion does not follow from the premise.)
An informal fallacy refers to an argument whose proposed conclusion is not supported by the premises. This creates an unpersuasive or unsatisfying conclusion.
Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning or argumentation that can undermine the validity of an argument. They are often used to mislead or distract from the truth, or to win an argument by appealing to emotions rather than reason. It's important to be aware of these fallacies in order to critically evaluate arguments and avoid being misled.
These mistakes in reasoning can be both intentional and unintentional, often leading to false or misleading conclusions. They undermine the strength and credibility of an argument, making it difficult to persuade others or arrive at accurate judgments.
There are two main types of logical fallacies: formal and informal. Formal fallacies involve errors in the structure or form of an argument, while informal fallacies arise from errors in the content, context, or delivery of the argument.
Logical fallacies can be difficult to identify, as they often involve seemingly reasonable arguments that, upon closer examination, reveal underlying flaws. To avoid falling prey to logical fallacies, it is essential to develop critical thinking skills and a solid understanding of the principles of logic and argumentation. By doing so, one can more effectively evaluate arguments and engage in rational discourse, leading to more accurate and reliable conclusions.
A few books to help you get a real handle on logical fallacies.