Logical Fallacies

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Definition of a 'Fallacy'

A misconception resulting from flaw in reasoning, or a trick or illusion in thoughts that often succeeds in obfuscating facts/truth.

Fallacies marked by an * are more common.


A formal fallacy is defined as an error that can be seen within the argument's form. Every formal fallacy is a non sequitur (or, an argument where the conclusion does not follow from the premise.)

Bad Reason FallacyPropositional FallaciesQuantification FallaciesSyllogistic Fallacies


An informal fallacy refers to an argument whose proposed conclusion is not supported by the premises. This creates an unpersuasive or unsatisfying conclusion.

Ad Hominem*Ambiguity*Anecdotal*Appeal to Authority*Appeal to Emotion*Appeal to Nature*Appeal to RidiculeAppeal to TraditionArgument from RepetitionArgumentum ad PopulumBandwagon*Begging the Question*Burden of Proof*Circular Reasoning*Continuum FallacyEquivocation*Etymological Fallacy*Fallacy Fallacy*Fallacy of Composition and Division*Fallacy of Quoting Out of ContextFalse Cause & False Attribution*False Dilemma*Furtive FallacyGambler's Fallacy*Genetic Fallacy*Ignoratio ElenchiIncomplete ComparisonInflation of ConflictKettle LogicLoaded Question*Middle Ground*No True Scotsman*Personal Incredulity*Proof by VerbosityProving Too MuchRed Herring*ReificationRetrospective DeterminismShotgun ArgumentationSlippery Slope*Special Pleading*Strawman*Texas Sharpshooter*Tu Quoque*

What are Logical Fallacies?

Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning or argumentation that can undermine the validity of an argument. They are often used to mislead or distract from the truth, or to win an argument by appealing to emotions rather than reason. It's important to be aware of these fallacies in order to critically evaluate arguments and avoid being misled.

These mistakes in reasoning can be both intentional and unintentional, often leading to false or misleading conclusions. They undermine the strength and credibility of an argument, making it difficult to persuade others or arrive at accurate judgments.

There are two main types of logical fallacies: formal and informal. Formal fallacies involve errors in the structure or form of an argument, while informal fallacies arise from errors in the content, context, or delivery of the argument.

Logical fallacies can be difficult to identify, as they often involve seemingly reasonable arguments that, upon closer examination, reveal underlying flaws. To avoid falling prey to logical fallacies, it is essential to develop critical thinking skills and a solid understanding of the principles of logic and argumentation. By doing so, one can more effectively evaluate arguments and engage in rational discourse, leading to more accurate and reliable conclusions.

Books About Logical Fallacies

A few books to help you get a real handle on logical fallacies.

Understanding Logical Fallacies Buy On Amazon Logically Fallacious Buy On Amazon The Fallacy Detective Buy On Amazon The Art of the Argument Buy On Amazon Mastering Logical Fallacies Buy On Amazon The above book links to Amazon are affiliate links. If you click through and make a purchase, I may get a commission from the sale.